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   Table of Contents - Current issue
May 2023
Volume 13 | Issue 5
Page Nos. 185-232

Online since Monday, May 29, 2023

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Natural polysaccharides for ulcerative colitis: A general overview p. 185
Akshita Arora, Nitin Sharma, Dipti Kakkar
Ulcerative colitis is a colonic disease characterized by the disruption of the mucosal epithelial layer and inflammation. For the treatment of this disease, various chemotherapeutic agents are available. However, the toxicities associated with chemotherapeutics greatly hamper treatment. Polysaccharide from natural resources is emerging as a potentially therapeutic substance with comparative minimum adverse effects. In this article, we are discussing polysaccharide from diverse sources (plants, edible mushrooms, and algae) which are being used in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. These polysaccharides exert their therapeutic action on ulcerative colitis through several mechanisms, including suppression of inflammatory cascades NF-ĸB, MAPK, IL-6/JAK2/STAT3, preventing the release of certain inflammatory mediators, modulating the intestinal microbiome, maintaining the integrity of intestinal barriers, and regulating the certain inflammatory markers. The present review compiles the role of different polysaccharides being used successfully in the management/treatment of ulcerative colitis. Special emphasis was given to explaining the biomolecular pathway.
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Effect of hydroalcoholic leaf extract of Cassia fistula L. on type II collagen-induced arthritis in rats p. 195
Vineet Mehta, Priyanka Nagu, Arun Parashar, Manjusha Chaudhary
Objective: To explore the effect of Cassia fistula on collagen II-induced arthritis in rats. Methods: The effect of 250 and 500 mg/kg chloroform and hydroalcoholic extract of Cassia fistula leaf on collagen II-induced arthritis was investigated by evaluating paw volume, arthritis index, spleen index, and biochemical parameters. Histopathological analysis and docking study were also performed. Results: A dose-dependent reduction in paw volume, arthritic index, and spleen index was observed following oral administration of the chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts. Treatment with Cassia fistula extracts reduced tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, prostaglandin E2, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total leucocyte count, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate while increasing IL-10 level. In addition, Cassia fistula extracts improved joint architecture, and prevented cartilage and bone destruction. Docking analysis demonstrated that the physcion, 1-octacosanol, 5,3',4'-trihydroxy-6-methoxy-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,2)-O-β-D-galactopyranoside and scopoletin may be responsible for the anti-arthritic effect of Cassia fistula. Conclusions: Cassia fistula suppresses the progression of collagen II-induced arthritis by lowering the inflammatory factors, decreasing paw volume and arthritic index, and alleviating joint architecture. However, further studies are required to confirm the bioactive molecule responsible for the anti-arthritic potential of Cassia fistula.
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Modulatory effect of D-pinitol on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats p. 205
Yu-Ling Duan, Zhi-Hua Wang, Yan-Xia Huo, Yang Zhang, Xiao-Ran Wu, Cui-Ke Gong, Lin-Lin Bai
Objective: To assess the effect of D-pinitol on pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats received intratracheal bleomycin (6 IU/kg) to induce pulmonary fibrosis, followed by administration of either D-pinitol (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg) or vehicle or methylprednisolone (10 mg/kg) over 28 days after bleomycin administration. Lung function, biochemical parameters, serum biochemistry, mRNA expressions, and histological features were observed. Results: D-pinitol at 10 and 20 mg/kg significantly (P<0.05) attenuated bleomycin-induced bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, decreased myeloperoxidase, nitric oxide, malondialdehyde levels, and increased glutathione and superoxide dismutase level. D-pinitol also improved lung function (enhanced pause, frequency of breathing, expired volume, and tidal volume). Besides, D-pinitol significantly (P<0.05) upregulated Nrf2 and downregulated mRNA expressions of TGF-β, collagen-1, and Smad-3. Furthermore, considerably less inflammation (peribronchial, perivascular, and total), Ashcroft, and interstitial fibrosis scores were observed in the D-pinitol group. Conclusions: D-pinitol exerts its effect against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via antioxidative and anti-fibrotic pathways.
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Anti-inflammatory effects of Solanum procumbens on a low dose complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis rat model p. 214
Xuan-Hai Do, Trong Nghia Nguyen, Thanh Chung Dang, Thi Thanh Mai Nguyen, Trung Nhan Nguyen, Van Nhat Truong Do, Huu Tho Le, Xuan Hai Nguyen, Hoang Phu Dang, Giang-Linh Nguyen, Dinh-Khanh Hoang, Van-Quan Le, Van-Mao Can
Objective: To investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Solanum procumbens on complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis rat models. Methods: We isolated and identified five compounds in the ethanol-soluble Solanum procumbens extract (SP) with anti-inflammatory effects, including ursolic acid, β-sitosterol, hexadecanoic acid, cis-vaccenic acid, and vanillic acid. Additionally, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of SP on rheumatoid arthritis symptoms, including paw volumes, local temperatures, withdrawal latency, and mechanical withdrawal threshold at the hind paw and white blood cell (WBC) number from complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis rat models. Results: We have successfully established a complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis rat model at a low dose (1 mg/mL). SP extract significantly reduced paw volumes (P<0.05), prolonged withdrawal latencies (P<0.05), decreased local temperature, and increased the mechanical withdrawal threshold (P<0.05), but only SP extract at the dose of 300 mg/kg significantly decreased WBC numbers. Conclusions: SP extract could be a potential medication candidate with anti-inflammatory effects for arthritis, but it requires further investigation into the mechanism of the SP and its effectiveness on other models as well as clinical trials.
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In vitro antioxidant and wound healing activity of Sargassum polycystum hydroethanolic extract in fibroblasts and keratinocytes p. 222
Wanwipha Woonnoi, Furoida Moolsap, Supita Tanasawet, Nattakanwadee Khumpirapang, Chakkapat Aenglong, Wanida Sukketsiri
Objective: To investigate the in vitro antioxidant and wound healing properties of the hydroethanolic extract of Sargassum polycystum, and elucidate the mechanism of its wound healing activity. Methods: Human dermal fibroblast and HaCaT cells were used to evaluate the proliferation by sulforhodamine B and dsDNA assay after treatment with Sargassum polycystum extracts. Scratch wound healing and phalloidin-rhodamine staining were employed to observe migratory activity and filopodia formation, respectively. Western blot and real-time RT-PCR assays were performed to determine the protein and gene expressions related to wound healing activities. Results: The phytochemical analysis found a higher level of flavonoid than phenolic compound in Sargassum polycystumextracts. In human dermal fibroblast cells, Sargassum polycystum extracts at 50 and 100 µg/mL significantly increased fibroblast proliferation and the gene expressions of hyaluronic acid synthase 1 (HAS1), HAS2, HAS3, collagen type 1 alpha 1 chain (COL1A1), collagen type 3 alpha 1 chain (COL3A1), and elastin. The phosphorylation of Akt, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK was also significantly upregulated after treatment with Sargassum polycystumextracts. Additionally, 50 and 100 µg/mL of the extracts prominently enhanced the proliferation, migration, and filopodia formation of HaCaT cells, as well as the protein levels of pFAK/FAK, pSrc/Src, pAkt/Akt, pERK1/2/ERK1/2, Rac1 and Cdc42. Conclusions: Sargassum polycystum extracts show promising wound healing activities in human dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes.
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