Impact Factor 2021 : 1.514 (@Clarivate Analytics)
5-Year Impact Factor: 2.699 (@Clarivate Analytics)
  • Users Online: 1286
  • Print this page
  • Email this page

Table of Contents
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 9  |  Page : 367-373

Biosensors: Types, features, and application in biomedicine

Biotechnology Research Center, Biotechnology Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran

Date of Submission28-Jun-2022
Date of Decision25-Jul-2022
Date of Acceptance10-Aug-2022
Date of Web Publication01-Sep-2022

Correspondence Address:
Fatemeh Kazemi-Lomedasht
Biotechnology Research Center, Biotechnology Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: The authors received no extramural funding for the study, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.354427

Rights and Permissions

Fast and precise diagnostic techniques are required for the treatment of many disorders. Biosensors are one of the diagnostic devices that are applicable in biological and medical sciences. Biosensors could be utilized to recognize biological molecules with high sensitivity. Biosensors are consisted of different components and have different types. Each type of biosensor is used in a particular field according to its specific features. Nanobodies are a novel class of antibodies with small size, high affinity, and specificity to their target. The unique properties of nanobodies make them appropriate tools for diagnostic applications. In this paper, we review biosensors, and their features and roles in medicine. Antibody/nanobody-based biosensors are also specifically discussed.

Keywords: Biosensor; Nanobody-based biosensor; Antibody- based biosensor; Biomedicine; Biotechnology

How to cite this article:
Karami E, Kazemi-Lomedasht F. Biosensors: Types, features, and application in biomedicine. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2022;12:367-73

How to cite this URL:
Karami E, Kazemi-Lomedasht F. Biosensors: Types, features, and application in biomedicine. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Jun 5];12:367-73. Available from:

  1. Introduction Top

Biosensors are one of the technological achievements that have been developed greatly over the past few years. Biosensors are analytical devices that use intelligence to detect biological substances and components and react with them. This reaction may produce chemical, optical, or electrical signals[1]. Biosensors are sensitive and fast devices that are used for the detection of a wide range of pollutants and pathogens[2],[3]. The majority of biosensors used for biological applications can detect different parameters such as temperature, pressure, pH, Ca2+, etc. Moreover, they can be utilized for the detection of biological elements such as enzymes, antibodies, antigens, and microorganisms[4],[5]. Biosensors are applicable in various fields, one of which is biomedicine. According to studies, it can be stated that the first biosensor in biomedicine was invented to detect blood glucose[6],[7],[8]. In this article, we review different parts/ components of a biosensor and their application in biomedicine. In addition, we briefly discuss biosensors that are affected by different biological elements.

  2. Different parts of a biosensor Top

A biosensor is an analytical device consisting of a bio-recognition element, detector or transducer, processor, and display[3],[9],[10]. Analytes are the components that can be recognized by biosensors. This recognition can take place upon binding of analytes to transducers through surface absorption, micro packaging, detention, crosslinking, and covalent bond[4],[5]. [Figure 1] demonstrates a schematic diagram of biosensors.
Figure 1: Schematic view of different sections of biosensors.

Click here to view

2.1. Bio-receptors (Bio-recognition elements)

Bio-receptors are molecules that are designed to interact with a specific analyte of interest. Organelles, cells, lipids, enzymes, antigens, and antibodies could be used as bio-recognition elements[11],[12]. [Table 1] summarizes some of the features of these biological elements.
Table 1: Features of biological elements of biosensors.

Click here to view

2.2. Transducers

After interaction of analyte and bio-receptors, transducers can detect the type and the amount of interaction and transform/translate it to a readable signal and convert it to processors[11],[13]. [Figure 2] depicts different classifications of biosensors based on their transducers and biological elements. Transducers are also categorized into different groups based on the input signals. These transducers include electrochemical, optical, thermal, and piezoelectric[2],[14].
Figure 2: Classification of biosensors based on transducers and recognition elements.

Click here to view

2.3. Biosensors’ processors

This part is responsible for the display of the results. Generally, biosensors are one of measuring devices that are designed to recognize specific analytes. This recognition is dependent on biological components and physicochemical detectors[11],[13].

  3. Biosensors based on bio-transducers Top

Sensors are powerful tools to recognize biological molecules. Electrochemical biosensors are suitable candidates for this technology due to their simplicity, high sensitivity, and favorable features[15],[16],[17]. These biosensors are based on chemical interactions of molecules, ions, or electrons that result in the modification of measurable electrical features such as electrical flow, ionic power, and potential[17],[18],[19] and could be utilized for detection of glucose, lactate, cholesterol, DNA, antigen, antibody and cancer[20],[21]. The second group is optical biosensors that operate based on fluorescence and are applicable when the measuring signal is light. Optical biosensors are extremely useful because of their safe diagnostic applications. These biosensors are small and could measure intracellular parameters in small environments[22],[23].

Other types of biosensors are thermal biosensors that are consisted of a combination of immobilized biomolecules and thermal sensors and are used for thermal measurement[23],[24].

Another type of biosensors is piezoelectric biosensors (sensitive to mass) consisting of biological elements and piezoelectric components. The piezoelectric components are normally quartz crystals with gold coating[4],[25],[26],[27]. [Table 2] summarizes advantages and features of each biosensor.
Table 2: Features of biosensors based on their transducers.

Click here to view

  4. Biosensors’ features Top

Biosensors should possess certain features to make them applicable in different fields, such as sensitivity and repeatability. Sensitivity is the ability of a biosensor to recognize and differentiate a molecule of interest from other components in the sample[28]. The higher the sensitivity, the faster this recognition would be[28],[29],[30].

Repeatability is another important feature that a biosensor should have. This means that a biosensor should be able to repeat the same process of recognition and yield the same results[28],[29],[30]. Stability, simplicity, small size, and low cost are other features of biosensors[30].

  5. Biosensors based on bio-receptors Top

5.1. Enzyme-based biosensors

Enzymes are generally used as bio-receptors due to their specific catalytic capabilities. Bio-catalytic activity of enzymes helps analytes to undergo biochemical interactions[31],[32]. In enzyme-based biosensors, concentration or ionic changes can be easily detected with sensors[4].

5.2. DNA-based biosensors

Biosensors that are capable of detecting specific disease-related DNA sequences are necessary for medical diagnosis[33],[34]. This approach is mostly based on immobilizing ssDNA on the sensors which enables hybridization of specific DNA sequences, recognition of complementary strands of DNA of interest, and signal transduction[35],[36].

The basis of DNA-based sensors is the recognition of nucleic acid and is known as an affordable method in the treatment of various genetic and infectious diseases. In this technique, results are translated into readable analytical signals under controlled circumstances[37],[38].

5.3. Antibody-based biosensors

Antibodies are considered a standard among biological elements due to their affinity to molecular targets. Studies have focused on the function of antibodies, their features, etc[39]. Each antibody has two antigen binding sites that bind to a specific epitope of an antigen[2]. Polyclonal antibodies recognize several epitopes at the same time; therefore, they are not commonly used in biosensor systems. On the other hand, monoclonal antibodies recognize only a single epitope and are more specific[40]. Antibody-based biosensors utilize antibodies or antigens as biological recognition elements[2] and could be optical or electrochemical based on the transducer, In addition, antibody-based biosensors that are extremely sensitive and have high detection capabilities[2],[41] are applicable in various fields such as cancer. The SRC (proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase)- associated mitosis protein (SAM68) is known as KHDRBS1[42]. Upon early detection of SAM68, we can prevent the development of cancer. In a study, an antibody-based biosensor against SAM68 was designed that could prognose pathologic state of lung cancer[43].

5.4. Nanobody-based biosensors

The process of producing antibodies is time-consuming, expensive, and challenging. It takes a lot of time to prepare antibodies so that they can be used as biological elements in biosensors. Thus, researchers came up with the idea that smaller parts of antibodies could be utilized instead of a whole antibody[44],[45],[46],[47],[48],[49],[50].

Nanobodies are single-domain antibodies. Unlike antibodies, nanobodies have smaller size around 10-12 kDa[47],[48],[51],[52],[53],[54],[55],[56],[57],[58]. Moreover, they are more stable against detergents and are less toxic in physiologic environments[59],[60],[61]. Nanobodies are derived from the variable region of antibodies’ heavy chain (HcAbs)[62],[63]. [Figure 3] demonstrates a schematic diagram of an antibody and a nanobody. Nanobodies can be used instead of antibodies in biosensors[64]. Smaller size and higher affinity of nanobodies[65] to biosensors make them a promising biological element to detect and analyze structural changes of proteins of interest[64]. In addition, a small size enables them to penetrate the cells and therefore makes them suitable recognition elements for analyzing intracellular protein structures[50],[57],[66],[67],[68],[69]. Indeed, studies on the application of nanobody-based biosensors in biomedical fields are promising[44],[64]. A study investigates PARP1 biosensors as nanobody- based biosensors. PARP1 has a pivotal role in DNA repair and has been considered in cancer treatment. PARP1 biosensor is designed based on PARP1 nanobody that can control and repair DNA damages in live cells[70]. In another study, nanobody-based biosensors were compared with antibody-based biosensors and it was observed that nanobody-based biosensors have more advantages than antibody-based biosensors[70]. Another study used RH5 nanobody in bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET-based biosensors) that can affect Rho (Ras homologous) activity. Because of the nanobody used in BRET-based biosensor, small molecules are also affected and can be monitored by this biosensor[71],[72]. In a study, E10, D10, and G10 nanobodies were used in the structure of epidermal growth factors. It was observed that these nanobodies were sensitive to EGFR and acted as biosensors[52],[59]. According to these studies, it can be stated that utilizing nanobodies in biosensors could have remarkable advantages in the diagnosis and treatment of different disorders.
Figure 3: Structures of monoclonal antibody (mAb), heavy chain antibody (HcAb), and nanobody.

Click here to view

  6. Biosensors used in biomedicine and their role in disease diagnosis Top

Biosensors are used in various fields such as medicine, marine sciences, and food industry[23],[28],[73]. In medicine, biosensors can quickly detect overall health status, initiation of the disease, and its progression. Biosensors can be cost-effective, sensitive, and fast and are applicable in most types of cancers, cardiovascular and other diseases[74]. They can also be utilized in biomedical studies and in particular in the diagnosis and treatment of different disorders, diagnosis of diseases at genome level and pathogens, measurement of therapeutic drugs, discovery of new drugs, and evaluation of their efficacy, as well as measurement of analytes in biological samples. Unlike other methodologies and techniques, operating biosensors does not require expert technicians and can provide fast diagnosis[1],[74],[75]. Biosensors also serve as a novel approach to the diagnosis and detection of cancers and tumors[76],[77]. Currently, several biosensors have been designed to be utilized in the diagnosis and treatment of breast, ovarian, prostate, liver, and colon cancers, and melanoma[6],[28]. Glucose biosensors are another type of biosensors that are widely used in the diagnosis of diabetes[6]. Because of an alarming increase in diseases due to high cholesterol levels, researchers have designed an enzyme-based biosensor that helps in the early recognition of cholesterol increase[78]. In a study, an antibody-based biosensor was designed and used in the early detection of two types of Mycobacterium[79]. Advances in molecular biology and genetic engineering enabled researchers to design biosensors based on DNA, RNA, and cells that can specifically recognize analytes of interest at molecular levels. There are biosensors for recognition of ArsR transcription factor and also biosensors with RNA-aptamer sensors that can recognize theophylline[80],[81]. In cancer research and cancer treatment, biosensors can diagnose whether a tumor is benign or malignant by measuring the size of tumor-specific proteins and also help in eradicating or decreasing the population of tumor cells[76],[77]. The majority of tyrosine-related disorders result in the increases of tyrosine levels. Evaluating tyrosine levels can be useful in the management of disorders. By using genetic engineering techniques, a biosensor was designed to easily quantitate tyrosine levels which helped in monitoring tyrosine levels[82].

  7. Conclusion Top

Due to the innumerable advantages of biosensors, studies about their application in medical and biological fields have been increasing. Biosensors have different parts and are classified into different categories based on their transducers and their recognition elements and can be utilized in various medical fields. Biosensors are widely used in medicine due to their low cost and simplicity and also their capability to detect/diagnose diseases quickly. Different biosensors have different features. Antibody-based biosensors and nanobody-based biosensors are two main types of biosensors. In an antibody-based biosensor, the recognition element is an antibody. These biosensors are powerful and sensitive; however, because of some of their disadvantages, nanobody-based biosensors are generally used instead of them. Nanobody-based biosensors not only have the advantages of antibody-based biosensors but also are smaller in size, more stable, and more specific which makes them a suitable substitution for antibody-based biosensors. Studies on the application of biosensors in the treatment of different diseases are ongoing and more in-depth researches are required. Overall, it can be concluded that biosensors are promising tools in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases such as cancer.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare there is no conflict of interest.


The authors would like to thank Pasteur Institute of Iran for supporting the current article.


The authors received no extramural funding for the study.

Authors’ contributions

EK: Collected data, and prepared draft of manuscript. FKL: Conceptualization, supervision, writing, review and editing.

  References Top

Turner AP. Biosensors: Sense and sensibility. Chem Soc Rev 2013; 42(8): 3184-3196.  Back to cited text no. 1
Jain R, Miri S, Pachapur VL, Brar SK. Advances in antibody-based biosensors in environmental monitoring. In: Brar SK, Hegde K, Pachapur VLB (eds.) Tools, techniques and protocols for monitoring environmental contaminants. London, Elsevier; 2019, p. 285-305.  Back to cited text no. 2
Clark Jr LC, Lyons C. Electrode systems for continuous monitoring in cardiovascular surgery. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1962; 102(1): 29-45.  Back to cited text no. 3
Monošík R, Stred’anský M, Šturdík E. Application of electrochemical biosensors in clinical diagnosis. J Clin Lab Anal 2012; 26(1): 22-34.  Back to cited text no. 4
Kissinger PT. Biosensors—a perspective. Biosens Bioelectron 2005; 20(12): 2512-2516.  Back to cited text no. 5
Scognamiglio V, Pezzotti G, Pezzotti I, Cano J, Buonasera K, Giannini D, et al. Biosensors for effective environmental and agrifood protection and commercialization: From research to market. Mikrochim Acta 2010; 170(3-4): 215-225.  Back to cited text no. 6
Clark LC, Duggan CA. Implanted electroenzymatic glucose sensors. Diabetes Care 1982; 5(3): 174-180.  Back to cited text no. 7
Singh S, Kumar V, Dhanjal DS, Datta S, Prasad R, Singh J. Biological biosensors for monitoring and diagnosis. In: Singh J, Vyas A, Wang SH, Prasad R (eds.) Microbial biotechnology: Basic research and applications. Singapore, Springer; 2020, p. 317-335.  Back to cited text no. 8
Wong SCC, Chan CML, Ma BBY, Lam MYY, Choi GCG, Au TCC, et al. Advanced proteomic technologies for cancer biomarker discovery. Expert Rev Proteomics 2009; 6(2): 123-134.  Back to cited text no. 9
Luong JH, Male KB, Glennon JD. Biosensor technology: Technology push versus market pull. Biotechnol Adv 2008; 26(5): 492-500.  Back to cited text no. 10
Darsanaki RK, Azizzadeh A, Nourbakhsh M, Raeisi G, Aliabadi MA. Biosensors: Functions and applications. J Biol Today World 2013; 2(1): 53-61.  Back to cited text no. 11
Bousse L. Whole cell biosensors. Sens Actuators B Chem 1996; 34(1-3): 270-275.  Back to cited text no. 12
D’souza S. Microbial biosensors. Biosens Bioelectron 2001; 16(6): 337-353.  Back to cited text no. 13
Adenuga AA. Functionalization of carbon nanotubes for effective biosensing and potential biomedical applications. Oregon State University; 2013.  Back to cited text no. 14
Vigneshvar S, Sudhakumari C, Senthilkumaran B, Prakash H. Recent advances in biosensor technology for potential applications–an overview. Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2016; 4: 11.  Back to cited text no. 15
Jiang X, Li D, Xu X, Ying Y, Li Y, Ye Z, et al. Immunosensors for detection of pesticide residues. Biosens Bioelectron 2008; 23(11): 1577-1587.  Back to cited text no. 16
Wang B, Takahashi S, Du X, Anzai JI. Electrochemical biosensors based on ferroceneboronic acid and its derivatives: A review. Biosensors 2014; 4(3): 243-256.  Back to cited text no. 17
Zhang W, Han C, Jia B, Saint C, Nadagouda M, Falaras P, et al. A 3D graphene-based biosensor as an early microcystin-LR screening tool in sources of drinking water supply. Electrochim Acta 2017; 236: 319-327.  Back to cited text no. 18
Chen A, Chatterjee S. Nanomaterials based electrochemical sensors for biomedical applications. Chem Soc Rev 2013; 42(12): 5425-5438.  Back to cited text no. 19
Korotcenkov G. Chemical sensors: Fundamentals of sensing materials. Volume 2: Nanostructured materials. New York: Momentum Press; 2010.  Back to cited text no. 20
Ahmed A, Rushworth JV, Hirst NA, Millner PA. Biosensors for whole- cell bacterial detection. Clin Microbiol Rev 2014; 27(3): 631-646.  Back to cited text no. 21
Fan X, White IM, Shopova SI, Zhu H, Suter JD, Sun Y. Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review. Anal Chim Acta 2008; 620: 8-26.  Back to cited text no. 22
Mehrotra P. Biosensors and their applications–A review. J Oral Biol Craniofac Res 2016; 6(2): 153-159.  Back to cited text no. 23
Cock LS, Arenas AMZ, Aponte AA. Use of enzymatic biosensors as quality indices: A synopsis of present and future trends in the food industry. Chil J Agric Res 2009; 69(2): 270-280.  Back to cited text no. 24
Kovář D, Farka Z, Skládal P. Detection of aerosolized biological agents using the piezoelectric immunosensor. Anal Chem 2014; 86(17): 8680-8686.  Back to cited text no. 25
Funari R, Della Ventura B, Carrieri R, Morra L, Lahoz E, Gesuele F, et al. Detection of parathion and patulin by quartz-crystal microbalance functionalized by the photonics immobilization technique. Biosens Bioelectron 2015; 67: 224-229.  Back to cited text no. 26
Zhou XC, Huang LQ, Li SFY. Microgravimetric DNA sensor based on quartz crystal microbalance: Comparison of oligonucleotide immobilization methods and the application in genetic diagnosis. Biosens Bioelectron 2001; 16(1-2): 85-95.  Back to cited text no. 27
Metkar SK, Girigoswami K. Diagnostic biosensors in medicine–A review. Biocatal Agric Biotechnol 2019; 17: 271-283.  Back to cited text no. 28
Fang Y, Ramasamy RP. Current and prospective methods for plant disease detection. Biosensors 2015; 5(3): 537-561.  Back to cited text no. 29
Thévenot DR, Toth K, Durst RA, Wilson GS. Electrochemical biosensors: Recommended definitions and classification. Biosens Bioelectron 2001; 16(1-2): 121-131.  Back to cited text no. 30
Wang J. Nanomaterial-based electrochemical biosensors. Analyst 2005; 130(4): 421-426.  Back to cited text no. 31
Nambiar S, Yeow JT. Conductive polymer-based sensors for biomedical applications. Biosens Bioelectron 2011; 26(5): 1825-1832.  Back to cited text no. 32
Kim A, Ah CS, Yu HY, Yang JH, Baek IB, Ahn CG, et al. Ultrasensitive, label-free, and real-time immunodetection using silicon field-effect transistors. Appl Phys Lett 2007; 91(10): 103901.  Back to cited text no. 33
Mascini M, Palchetti I, Marrazza G. DNA electrochemical biosensors. Fresenius J Anal Chem 2001; 369(1): 15-22.  Back to cited text no. 34
Lodes MJ, Suciu D, Elliott M, Stover AG, Ross M, Caraballo M, et al. Use of semiconductor-based oligonucleotide microarrays for influenza a virus subtype identification and sequencing. J Clin Microbiol 2006; 44(4): 1209-1218.  Back to cited text no. 35
Marrazza G, Chianella I, Mascini M. Disposable DNA electrochemical sensor for hybridization detection. Biosens Bioelectron 1999; 14(1): 43-51.  Back to cited text no. 36
Star A, Tu E, Niemann J, Gabriel JCP, Joiner CS, Valcke C. Label-free detection of DNA hybridization using carbon nanotube network field- effect transistors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006; 103(4): 921-926.  Back to cited text no. 37
Li Z, Chen Y, Li X, Kamins T, Nauka K, Williams RS. Sequence-specific label-free DNA sensors based on silicon nanowires. Nano Lett 2004; 4(2): 245-247.  Back to cited text no. 38
Sharma S, Byrne H, O’Kennedy RJ. Antibodies and antibody-derived analytical biosensors. Essays Biochem 2016; 60(1): 9-18.  Back to cited text no. 39
Conroy PJ, Hearty S, Leonard P, O’Kennedy RJ. Antibody production, design and use for biosensor-based applications. Semin Cell Dev Biol 2009; 20(1): 10-26.  Back to cited text no. 40
D’Orazio P. Biosensors in clinical chemistry—2011 update. Clin Chim Acta 2011; 412(19-20): 1749-1761.  Back to cited text no. 41
Lukong KE, Richard S. Sam68, the KH domain-containing superSTAR. Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer 2003; 1653(2): 73-86.  Back to cited text no. 42
Sumithra B, Jayanthi VSA, Manne HC, Gunda R, Saxena U, Das AB. Antibody-based biosensor to detect oncogenic splicing factor Sam68 for the diagnosis of lung cancer. Biotechnol Lett 2020; 42(12): 2501-2509.  Back to cited text no. 43
Goode J, Dillon G, Millner P. The development and optimisation of nanobody based electrochemical immunosensors for IgG. Sens Actuators B Chem 2016; 234: 478-484.  Back to cited text no. 44
Zeng X, Shen Z, Mernaugh R. Recombinant antibodies and their use in biosensors. Anal Bioanal Chem 2012; 402(10): 3027-3038.  Back to cited text no. 45
Luppa PB, Sokoll LJ, Chan DW. Immunosensors—principles and applications to clinical chemistry. Clin Chim Acta 2001; 314(1-2): 1-26.  Back to cited text no. 46
Khodabakhsh F, Behdani M, Rami A, Kazemi-Lomedasht F. Single- domain antibodies or nanobodies: A class of next-generation antibodies. Int Rev Immunol 2018; 37(6): 316-322.  Back to cited text no. 47
Alirahimi E, Kazemi-Lomedasht F, Shahbazzadeh D, Habibi-Anbouhi M, Chafi MH, Sotoudeh N, et al. Nanobodies as novel therapeutic agents in envenomation. Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Sub 2018; 1862(12): 2955-2965.  Back to cited text no. 48
Homayouni V, Ganjalikhani-Hakemi M, Rezaei A, Khanahmad H, Behdani M, Lomedasht FK. Preparation and characterization of a novel nanobody against T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-3 (TIM-3). Iran J Basic Med Sci 2016; 19(11): 1201.  Back to cited text no. 49
Karami E, Sabatier JM, Behdani M, Irani S, Kazemi-Lomedasht F. A nanobody-derived mimotope against VEGF inhibits cancer angiogenesis. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 2020; 35(1): 1233-1239.  Back to cited text no. 50
Muyldermans S. Nanobodies: Natural single-domain antibodies. Annu Rev Biochem 2013; 82: 775-797.  Back to cited text no. 51
Nevoltris D, Lombard B, Dupuis E, Mathis G, Chames P, Baty D. Conformational nanobodies reveal tethered epidermal growth factor receptor involved in EGFR/ErbB2 predimers. ACS Nano 2015; 9(2): 1388-1399.  Back to cited text no. 52
Kazemi-Lomedasht F, Muyldermans S, Habibi-Anbouhi M, Behdani M. Design of a humanized anti vascular endothelial growth factor nanobody and evaluation of its in vitro function. Iran J Basic Med Sci 2018; 21(3): 260.  Back to cited text no. 53
Kazemi-Lomedasht F, Pooshang-Bagheri K, Habibi-Anbouhi M, Hajizadeh-Safar E, Shahbazzadeh D, Mirzahosseini H, et al. In vivo immunotherapy of lung cancer using cross-species reactive vascular endothelial growth factor nanobodies. Iran J Basic Med Sci 2017; 20(5): 489.  Back to cited text no. 54
Kazemi-Lomedasht F, Behdani M, Habibi-Anbouhi M, Shahbazzadeh D. Production and characterization of novel camel single domain antibody targeting mouse vascular endothelial growth factor. Monoclon Antibodies Immunodiagn Immunother 2016; 35(3): 167-171.  Back to cited text no. 55
Kazemi-Lomedasht F, Behdani M, Rahimpour A, Habibi-Anbouhi M, Poshang-Bagheri K, Shahbazzadeh D. Selection and characterization of specific nanobody against human immunoglobulin G. Monoclon Antibodies Immunodiagn Immunother 2015; 34(3): 201-205.  Back to cited text no. 56
Alirahimi E, Ashkiyan A, Kazemi-Lomedasht F, Azadmanesh K, Hosseininejad-Chafi M, Habibi-Anbouhi M, et al. Intrabody targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 mediates downregulation of surface localization. Cancer Gene Ther 2017; 24(1): 33-37.  Back to cited text no. 57
Bagheri M, Babaei E, Shahbazzadeh D, Habibi-Anbouhi M, Alirahimi E, Kazemi-Lomedasht F, et al. Development of a recombinant camelid specific diabody against the heminecrolysin fraction of Hemiscorpius lepturus scorpion. Toxin Rev 2017; 36(1): 7-11.  Back to cited text no. 58
Köhler M, Neff C, Perez C, Brunner C, Pardon E, Steyaert J, et al. Binding specificities of nanobody• membrane protein complexes obtained from chemical cross-linking and high-mass MALDI mass spectrometry. Anal Chem 2018; 90(8): 5306-5313.  Back to cited text no. 59
Pardon E, Laeremans T, Triest S, Rasmussen SG, Wohlköönig A, Ruf A, et al. A general protocol for the generation of nanobodies for structural biology. Nat Protoc 2014; 9(3): 674-693.  Back to cited text no. 60
Sadeghi A, Behdani M, Muyldermans S, Habibi-Anbouhi M, Kazemi- Lomedasht F. Development of a mono-specific anti-VEGF bivalent nanobody with extended plasma half-life for treatment of pathologic neovascularization. Drug Test Anal 2020; 12(1): 92-100.  Back to cited text no. 61
Muyldermans S, Baral T, Retamozzo VC, De Baetselier P, De Genst E, Kinne J, et al. Camelid immunoglobulins and nanobody technology. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2009; 128(1-3): 178-183.  Back to cited text no. 62
Hamers-Casterman C, Atarhouch T, Muyldermans S, Robinson G, Hammers C, Songa EB, et al. Naturally occurring antibodies devoid of light chains. Nature 1993; 363(6428): 446-448.  Back to cited text no. 63
Ahmed M, Koo KM, Mainwaring PN, Carrascosa LG, Trau M. Phosphoprotein biosensors for monitoring pathological protein structural changes. Trends Biotechnol 2020; 38(5): 519-531.  Back to cited text no. 64
Kijanka M, Dorresteijn B, Oliveira S, van Bergen en Henegouwen PM. Nanobody-based cancer therapy of solid tumors. Nanomedicine 2015; 10(1): 161-174.  Back to cited text no. 65
Naderi S, Roshan R, Ghaderi H, Behdani M, Mahmoudi S, Habibi- Anbouhi M, et al. Selection and characterization of specific nanobody against neuropilin-1 for inhibition of angiogenesis. Mol Immunol 2020; 128: 56-63.  Back to cited text no. 66
Karami E, Behdani M, Kazemi-Lomedasht F. Albumin nanoparticles as nanocarriers for drug delivery: Focusing on antibody and nanobody delivery and albumin-based drugs. J Drug Deliv Sci Technol 2020; 55: 101471.  Back to cited text no. 67
Mohseni N, Roshan R, Naderi S, Behdani M, Kazemi-Lomedasht F. In vitro combination therapy of pathologic angiogenesis using anti-vascular endothelial growth factor and anti-neuropilin-1 nanobodies. Iran J Basic Med Sci 2020; 23(10): 1335.  Back to cited text no. 68
Ahadi M, Ghasemian H, Behdani M, Kazemi-Lomedasht F. Oligoclonal selection of nanobodies targeting vascular endothelial growth factor. J Immunotoxicol 2019; 16(1): 34-42.  Back to cited text no. 69
Buchfellner A, Yurlova L, Nüske S, Scholz AM, Bogner J, Ruf B, et al. A new nanobody-based biosensor to study endogenous PARP1 in vitro and in live human cells. PLoS One 2016; 11(3): e0151041.  Back to cited text no. 70
Keller L, Bery N, Tardy C, Ligat L, Favre G, Rabbitts TH, et al. Selection and characterization of a nanobody biosensor of GTP-bound RHO activities. Antibodies (Basel) 2019; 8(1): 8.  Back to cited text no. 71
Quevedo CE, Cruz-Migoni A, Bery N, Miller A, Tanaka T, Petch D, et al. Small molecule inhibitors of RAS-effector protein interactions derived using an intracellular antibody fragment. Nat Commun 2018; 9(1): 1-12.  Back to cited text no. 72
Alocilja EC, Radke SM. Market analysis of biosensors for food safety. Biosens Bioelectron 2003; 18(5-6): 841-846.  Back to cited text no. 73
Ngoepe M, Choonara YE, Tyagi C, Tomar LK, Du Toit LC, Kumar P, et al. Integration of biosensors and drug delivery technologies for early detection and chronic management of illness. J Sens 2013; 13(6): 7680-7713.  Back to cited text no. 74
Kylilis N. Synthetic biology biosensor design for medical diagnostics. Imperial College London; 2017.  Back to cited text no. 75
Bohunicky B, Mousa SA. Biosensors: The new wave in cancer diagnosis. Nanotechnol Sci Appl 2011; 4: 1.  Back to cited text no. 76
Tothill IE. Biosensors for cancer markers diagnosis. Semin Cell Dev Biol 2009; 20(1): 55-62.  Back to cited text no. 77
Arya SK, Datta M, Malhotra BD. Recent advances in cholesterol biosensor. Biosens Bioelectron 2008; 23(7): 1083-1100.  Back to cited text no. 78
Chuensirikulchai K, Laopajon W, Phunpae P, Apiratmateekul N, Surinkaew S, Tayapiwatana C, et al. Sandwich antibody-based biosensor system for identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and nontuberculous mycobacteria. J Immunoassay Immunochem 2019; 40(6): 590-604.  Back to cited text no. 79
Trang PTK, Berg M, Viet PH, Mui NV, van der Meer JR. Bacterial bioassay for rapid and accurate analysis of arsenic in highly variable groundwater samples. Environ Sci Technol 2005; 39(19): 7625-7630.  Back to cited text no. 80
Lynch SA, Desai SK, Sajja HK, Gallivan JP. A high-throughput screen for synthetic riboswitches reveals mechanistic insights into their function. Chem Biol 2007; 14(2): 173-184.  Back to cited text no. 81
Lin C, Zhang QX, Yeh YC. Development of a whole-cell biosensor for the determination of tyrosine in urine for point-of-care diagnostics. Anal Methods 2019; 11(10): 1400-1404.  Back to cited text no. 82
Seok H, Park TH. Integration of biomolecules and nanomaterials: Towards highly selective and sensitive biosensors. Biotechnol J 2011; 6(11): 1310-1316.  Back to cited text no. 83
Hicks M, Bachmann TT, Wang B. Synthetic biology enables programmable cell-based biosensors. Chem Phys Chem 2020; 21(2): 132-144.  Back to cited text no. 84
Gui Q, Lawson T, Shan S, Yan L, Liu Y. The application of whole cell- based biosensors for use in environmental analysis and in medical diagnostics. Sensors 2017; 17(7): 1623.  Back to cited text no. 85
Frampton RA, Taylor C, Moreno AVH, Visnovsky SB, Petty NK, Pitman AR, et al. Identification of bacteriophages for biocontrol of the kiwifruit canker phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae. App Environ Microbiol 2014; 80(7): 2216-2228.  Back to cited text no. 86


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]

  [Table 1], [Table 2]


    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  2. Different par...3. Biosensors ba...4. Biosensors...5. Biosensors ba...6. Biosensors us...
  In this article
1. Introduction
7. Conclusion
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded341    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal